Department of Agronomy

Bangladesh Agricultural University


Common Name: Bermuda grass
Scientific Name: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
Family Name: Gramineae
Type: Grass

Identification Notes

Cynodon dactylon Photo 1
Cynodon dactylon Photo 1
Cynodon dactylon Photo 2
Life Cycle
Culm: prostrate, creeping, slender or stout, more or less compressed, have underground rhizomes. Leaves: short, linear, smooth, distichously arranged, blade scabrous or hairy. Inflorescence: terminal, digitally arranged in 1 to several spikes, spikelet one flowered. Fruit: caryopsis
Growing season
Rabi and Kharif
Germination period
January to December
Flowering period
March to August
By seed, rhizome and stolons
Prefer dry condition. Found in all rabi crops, aus rice, jute, til and other upland crops. Also found on all high lands
Weed potential
Cynodon dactylon is a very competitive species. This weed is a serious threat to the upland crops such as maize, cotton and sugarcane, or in vineyards and plantation crops (Hanna, 1992). It is considered a weed in more than 80 countries. Holm et al. (1977) have categorised C. dactylon as the second most important weed in the world (after Cyperus rotundus). C. dactylon can rapidly invade cultivated land, cause serious yield losses and it is extremely difficult to eradicate (Bogdan 1977). In Kenya Cynodon dactylon is declared a noxious weed of Agriculture under the Noxious Weeds Act CAP 325, in Kenya. Cynodon dactylon has been included in the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD 2010).
Control measure
Cultural Control, Mulching and Solarization, Chemical Control of Established Plants, By growing competitive crops like sanhemp , cowpea, etc can suppress the growth of weeds.
Recommended herbicide
[1] Glyphosate (Commercial name - Roundup®, produced by Monsanto) @ 1.5 kg/ha give a good control. [2] Dalapon is applied twice, just after the rabi crop harvested and before monsoon to ensure its control. [3] As pre-emergence Atrazine can also be used. [4] Paraquat 1kg /ha is applied 2 weeks before summer tillage . [5] A combination of MCPA + ACPB @ 0.25 kg ai/ha each is found to be best in controlling this weed. [6] 2,4-D + Dalapon @2 kg /ha in 800 litres of water can be spread into the soil immediately after ploughing. [7] [Simazine + Atrazine @ 2 kg /ha as pre-emrgence application followed by post emergence of Dalapon @ 4.5 kg/ha give 90%.
Found worldwide. It is native to Europe, Africa, Australia and much of Asia. It has been introduced to the Americas.
Medicinal properties
The plant has been long used in the traditional medicines to treat various ailments such as anasarca, cancer, convulsions, cough, cramps, diarrhea, dropsy, dysentery, epilepsy, headache, hemorrhage, hypertension, hysteria, measles, rubella, snakebite, sores, stones, tumors, urogenital disorders, warts and wounds (Bagori and Solanki 2011). The crushed leaves are applied to minor wounds as a styptic to stop bleeding ()
  1. Bogdan AV. 1977. Tropical pasture and fodder plants. Longman, 475 pp.
  2. Holm LG, Plucknett DL, Pancho JV, Herberger JP. 1977. The world’s worst weeds: distribution and biology. East-West Center, University Press of Hawaii. 609 pp.
  3. GISD (2010). Global Invasive Species Database online data sheet. Cynodon dactylon (grass). Accessed March.
  4. Nagori BP, Solanki R 2011. Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.: A Valuable Medicinal Plant. Research Journal of Medicinal Plants, 5: 508-514.